Computer Information Technology - Bunker Hill Community College
Click on the image to view the full title page. Portrait of Luca Pacioli, traditionally attributed to Jacopo de' Barbari, attribution controversial. Please see the wikipedia article on Luca Pacioli. In Japanese the abacus is called soroban. Between and German astronomer Christoph Scheiner invented the pantograph. This was probably the first copying device. Christoph Scheiner, Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer who in , invented the pantograph. A painting by Pieter Breughel the Younger , of which one copy dated entitled the Village Lawyer is in the Museum voor Schone Kunster , Ghent, Belgium, and another copy dated , and entitled Paying the Tax is in the Armand Hammer collection at the Fisher Museum of Art, University of Southern California , perhaps caricatures the way paper accounting or legal records were maintained at the time.
Records are shown in piles of bundles on tables, in bundles on shelves, in what appears to be sacks of bundles hanging on walls, in sheets of paper bundled together that may be tacked up on walls, and in piles on the floor. In short the methods of organizing and storing information appear sloppy, inefficient, and possibly chaotic.
In Dissertations academiques. John Napier invented several mechanical methods to simplify and speed up the arithmetic calculations, especially multiplication. The long bands were then attached end to end and mounted on a wooden cylinder the size of a child's drum or a hat. The reckoning principles were identical to Napier's bones.
After entering government service in Morland was chosen to accompany a British diplomatic mission to the court of Sweden's Queen Christina. The Swedish Queen was a noted patron of the sciences, and Blaise Pascal had presented her with one of his Pascaline calculators in It is likely that Morland had the opportunity to familiarize himself with the Pascaline while in Sweden. Remarkably, according to the Wikipedia, Thomas received almost immediate acknowledgement for this invention, as he was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor only one year later, in By the time of his death in , his manufacturing facility had built around 1, Arithmometers, making it the first mass produced mechanical calculator in the world, and at the time, the only mechanical calculator reliable and dependable enough to be used in places like government agencies, banks, insurance companies and observatories just to name a few.
The manufacturing of the Arithmometer went on for another 40 years until around " Wikipedia article on Charles Xavier Thomas, accessed The success of the Arithmometer, which to a certain extent paralleled Thomas's success in the insurance industry, was, of course, in complete contrast to the problems that Charles Babbage faced with producing and gaining any acceptance for his vastly more sophisticated, complex, ambitious and expensive calculating engines during roughly the same time frame. Thomas, of course, produced an affordable product that succeeded in speeding up basic arithmetical operations essential to the insurance industry while Babbage's scientific and engineering goals initially of making mathematical tables more accurate, and later, of automating mathematical operations in general, did not attempt to meet a recognized industrial demand.
Any number up to , may be set by moving the pointers to the numbers 0 to 9 engraved next to the six slots on the fixed cover plate. The movement of any of these pointers slides a small pinion with ten teeth along a square axle, underneath and to the left of which is a Leibniz stepped wheel. This plate also carried the figure wheel recording the number of turns of the driving crank for each position of the hinged plate.
The pair of bevel wheels is placed in proper gear by setting a lever at the top left-hand cover to either "Addition and Multiplication" or "Subtraction and Division. Multiplying by may be performed as follows: Lift the hinged plate, turn and release the two milled knobs to bring all the figure wheels to show zero; lower the hinged plate in its position to the extreme left; set the number on the four slots on the fixed plate; set the lever on the left to "multiplication" and turn the handle eight times; lift the hinged plate, slide it one step to the right, and lower it into position; turn the handle nine times; step the plate one point to the right again and the turn the handle five times.
The product 1,, will then appear on the top row, and the multiplier on the next row of figures" From Gordon Bell's website , accessed William Austin Burt of Detroit, Michigan invented an early typewriter, called the Typographer in The machine that Burt invented was cumbersome and difficult to use. Writing a letter with Burt's "Typographer" took longer than writing by hand. The Prudential was the first of the great industrial life insurance companies that handled the insurance policies of millions of people, and processed an immense amount of data, initially by hand.
Hughes's printing mechanism worked something like a "golfball" typewriter, but it was produced before the typewriter was invented. The Hughes telegraph, the first telegraph printing text on a paper tape; this one was manufactureed by Siemens and Halske, Germany Warsaw Muzeum Techniki. During the American Civil War , on July 1, President Lincoln and the United States Congress and passed the Revenue Act of , creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a progressive rate income tax to pay war expenses.
This Act repealed the flat rate income tax that had been established by the Revenue Act of the previous year. Chase to President Lincoln recommending George S. Boutwell for the newly created post of Commissioner of Internal Revenue. This was the first device to allow the operator to write faster than a person writing by hand. He arrived at the typewriter through a different route.
His initial goal was to create a machine to number pages of a book, tickets, and so on. He began work on this at Kleinsteubers machine shop in Milwaukee, together with a fellow printer Samuel W. Soule, and they patented a numbering machine on November 13, Further inspiration came in July , when Sholes came across a short note in Scientific American describing the "Pterotype", a prototype typewriter that had been invented by John Pratt in England. Sholes decided that the pterotype was too complex and set out to make his own machine, whose name he got from the article: the typewriting machine, or typewriter.
The Scientific American article had described a "literary piano"; the first model that the trio built had a keyboard literally resembling a piano. It had black keys and white keys, laid out in two rows. It did not contain keys for the numerals 0 or 1 because the letters O and I were deemed sufficient:. It was in this form that Sholes, Glidden and Soule were granted patents for their invention on on June 23, and July The first document to be produced on a typewriter was a contract that Sholes had written, in his capacity as the Comptroller for the city of Milwaukee. Machines similar to Sholes's had been previously used by the blind for embossing, but by Sholes's time the inked ribbon had been invented, which made typewriting in its current form possible" Wikipedia article on Christopher Sholes, accessed Sholes and Glidden typewriter documentation.
The machine, patented on June 23, , resembled "a cross between a piano and a kitchen table. Remington started production of their first typewriter on March 1, in Ilion, New York.
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The machines, as first produced, were problematic in their operation. The action of the type bars in the early typewriters were very sluggish and tended to jam frequently. Because typists at that time used the "hunt and peck" method, Sholes' arrangement increased the time it took for the typists to hit the keys for common two letter combinations enough to ensure that each type bar had enough time to fall back into place before the next one came up.
Though Sholes had never imagined that typing would ever be faster than handwriting, which is usually 20 words per minute WPM or less, his invention with the QWERTY keyboard was the first machine to allow the operator to write faster than a person writing by hand. It only printed capital letters. English travel agent Thomas Cook introduced "circular notes.
This was the first real advance in mechanical calculating technology since Gottfried Leibniz's stepped drum These calculators were called " pinwheel calculators. The greater ease of use of this technology, its general reliability, and the compact size of the equipment incorporating it caused an explosion of sales in the calculator industry.
Detail of image from Baldwin's Calculating Machine. See larger image and resize image for complete picture. The patent covered the electric pen, used for making the stencil, and the flatbed duplicating press. In Edison obtained a further patent, US , "Method of Preparing Autographic Stencils for Printing" , which covered the making of stencils using a file plate, a grooved metal plate on which the stencil was placed which perforated the stencil when written on with a blunt metal stylus. The card shown in U. Patent , of June 8 was preprinted with a template and had holes arranged close to the edges so they could be reached by a railroad conductor's ticket punch, with the center reserved for written descriptions.
Hollerith was originally inspired by railroad tickets that let the conductor encode a rough description of the passenger:. So you see, I only made a punch photograph of each person. It also eliminated the need for a printed template on each card, instead a master template was used at the punch; a printed reading board could be placed under a card that was to be read manually.
Hollerith envisioned a number of card sizes. In an article he wrote describing his proposed system for tabulating the U. A reading board for these cards can be seen at the Columbia University Computing History site. The Columbia site says Hollerith took advantage of available boxes designed to transport paper currency.
Hollerith's original system used an ad-hoc coding system for each application, with groups of holes assigned specific meanings, e. Later designs standardized the coding, with twelve rows, where the lower ten rows coded digits 0 through 9. This allowed groups of holes to represent numbers that could be added, instead of simply counting units " Wikipedia article on Punched Cards, accessed It reduced data-processing time by 80 percent over manual methods. This sped up processing of the census. It had a large display to record money received and a locked drawer to hold cash receipts.
In Thomas Edison, who had invented the Electric Pen in , agreed to sell his patents for this device to Albert Blake Dick , who had invented the mimeograph stencil. Edison also agreed to help Dick market the mimeograph under the name, Edison Mimeograph. Marketed by the AB Dick company of Chicago, the mimeograph became the first widely used duplicating machine. Felt introduced the Comptometer , a non-printing key-driven calculating machine whose chief advantages were speed, versatility, and ease of use.
For each digit a push button from 1 to 9 is selected which rotates a Pascal-type wheel with the corresponding number of increments. Numbers are subtracted by adding the complement shown in smaller numbers. The carrying of tens is accomplished by power generated by the action of the keys and stored in a helical spring, which is automatically released at the proper instant to perform the carry.
They never successfully advanced into the electro-mechanical era, but remained purely mechanical, two-function adding and subtracting machines" Gordon Bell's website , accessed He finds himself in the same location Boston, Massachusetts , but in a totally changed world: It is the year and, while he was sleeping, the United States has been transformed into a socialist utopia.
The remainder of the book outlines Bellamy's thoughts about improving the future. The major themes are the dangers of the stock market, the use of credit cards, the benefits of a socialist legal system, music, and the use of an "industrial army" to make tasks run smoother. Everyone retires with full benefits at age 45, and may eat in any of the public kitchens.
The productive capacity of America is nationally owned, and the goods of society are equally distributed to its citizens. A considerable portion of the book is dialogue between Leete and West wherein West expresses his confusion about how the future society works and Leete explains the answers using various methods, such as metaphors or direct comparisons with 19th-century society.
For example, Julian West is taken to a store which with its descriptions of cutting out the middleman to cut down on waste in a similar way to the consumers' cooperatives of his own day based on the Rochdale Principles of somewhat resembles a modern warehouse club like BJ's, Costco, or Sam's Club.
He additionally introduces a concept of credit cards in chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 25, and 26, but these bear no resemblance to the instruments of debt-finance. All citizens receive an equal amount of "credit. Bellamy also predicts both sermons and music being available in the home through cable "telephone". Bellamy labeled the philosophy behind the vision "nationalism", and his work inspired the formation of more than Nationalist Clubs to propagate his ideas" Wikipedia article on Looking Backward, accessed Louis, Missouri, founder of the American Arithmometer Company ; Burroughs Adding Machine Company began commercial production of his dependable key-driven printing adding machine.
In the " Millionaire" mechanical calculator , about the size of a small desk top, was introduced in Switzerland. The "Millionaire" was the first commercially successful calculator that could perform multiplication directly, rather than by repeated addition. It was designed by Otto Steiger, a Swiss engineer and was first patented in Germany in Production by Hans W.
Egli of Zurich started in , and continued to Most models were driven by hand-crank but some were electrified. In Russian-born James Powers , an engineer hired by the U. Census Bureau in to help the government avoid what were perceived as excessive charges by Herman Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company , managed to avoid patent infringement and created a faster, cheaper electric punched card tabulating machine that was compatible with Hollerith's punched card format.
Powers then formed a corporation in Newark, New Jersey to manufacture and sell his device. Originally known as the Powers Tabulating Machine Company, the company changed its name to Powers Accounting Machine Company in order to target a wider market. Thomas J. Watson became president of Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation , and focused the company on electric card-tabulating equipment for businesses. Johnson, who saw Endicott as the world's first industrial 'park' with a 'Square Deal' for everyone, IBM began building a factory complex in Endicott just to the east of the Endicott-Johnson factories.
The original Bundy building a Binghamton company was erected on North Street as early as and stands to this day. In IBM adopted the eighty-column punched card , the standard for about the next fifty years, and one of IBM's most profitable products. With this technique Comrie reformed the production of the Nautical Almanac , greatly increasing the accuracy of the navigation tables.
This project, in which twenty million holes were punched into five hundred thousand cards, continued into It was the first use of punched cards in a purely scientific application. It was the first independent scientific computing service bureau in the world. In IBM marketed the first commercially successful electric typewriter, the Electromatic.
New York, was utilized from to , and somewhat later. It held a small paper card for a signature. It was laid in the imprinter first, then a charge slip on top of it, onto which an inked ribbon was pressed. Charga-Plate was a trademark of Farrington Manufacturing Co. Charga-Plates were issued by large-scale merchants to their regular customers, much like department store credit cards of today.
In some cases, the plates were kept in the issuing store rather than held by customers. When an authorized user made a purchase, a clerk retrieved the plate from the store's files and then processed the purchase. Charga-Plates speeded back-office bookkeeping that was done manually in paper ledgers in each store, before computers" Wikipedia article on Credit card, accessed The Social Security Act of required the U.
In , American taxation law was altered so that individuals over 5 years old without Social Security numbers could not be successfully claimed as dependents on tax returns; by the threshold was lowered to 1 year old, and was later abolished altogether. Manually operated, it was also known as the Ox Box. An improved version, Camera 1, was introduced in The company renamed itself Haloid Xerox in , and shortened its name to Xerox Corporation in The original patent for xerography. Chester Carlson originally named the process electrophotography.
In IBM announced the Electromatic Model 04 electric typewriter , featuring proportional spacing. By assigning varied rather than uniform spacing to different sized characters, the Type 4 recreated the appearance of a printed page, an effect that was enhanced by a typewriter ribbon innovation that produced clearer, sharper words on the page. The card allowed members to charge the cost of restaurant bills only. Lyons and Company in England. In June Richard W. This was the first report on the application of electronic computers to business.
The report was issued before any electronic computer was delivered to an American corporation. See Reading Together with its overseas affiliates, this product eventually evolved into the Visa system. Because American Express previously had an international network of offices in place, and their traveler's' cheques had been accepted throughout the world for decades, this was the first credit card accepted internationally. The first cards were paper, with the account number and cardmember's name typed.
It was not until that American Express began issuing embossed ISO plastic cards, an industry first" Wikipedia article on American Express, accessed The first machine, delivered to a Pennsylvania metal-fastener maker, weighed nearly pounds. It needed a carpenter to uncrate it, an employee with 'key operator' training, and its own amp circuit. Erika Tatiana Camacho , Ph. Erika Camacho, Associate Professor of Arizona State University ASU , published the first set of mechanistic models addressing photoreceptor degeneration laying the mathematical framework to study degenerative disease of the retina.
While experimental physiologists have been working on this area for decades, Dr. Camacho has helped provide a new framework through which experimentalists can examine this degeneration. Establishing this area of research within mathematical physiology has been impactful and has led to new national and international collaborations with experimental biologists and medical researchers who are experts on retinal degeneration such as Retinitis Pigmentosa RD and mathematicians in the area of optimal control.
She will continue to work towards a complete understanding of photoreceptor degeneration with the ultimate goal of preventing blindness.
Cyberculture and New Media. (At the Interface)
She received her B. Camacho spent a year as a postdoctoral research associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory in She then held a tenure-track faculty position at Loyola Marymount University before joining the faculty at ASU in She co-founded and co-directed the Applied Mathematical Sciences Summer Institute AMSSI , dedicated to the recruitment of undergraduate women, underrepresented minorities, and those that might not otherwise have the opportunity.
Carlos Castillo-Chavez , Ph. His research program is at the interface of the mathematical and natural and social sciences with emphasis on i The role of dynamic social landscapes on disease dispersal; ii The role of environmental and social structures on the dynamics of addiction and disease evolution, and iii Dynamics of complex systems at the interphase of ecology, epidemiology and the social sciences. Castillo-Chavez has co-authored over two hundred publications see Google Scholar citations , edited several volumes of research articles, and co-authored a textbook in Mathematical Biology in second edition in He has mentored 25 postdoctoral researchers; and co-mentored over undergraduates in research projects.
Castillo-Chavez is the founding director of the Simon A. He has served in various academic, student affairs, and research professional capacities within higher education over the last fifteen years. He is committed to ensuring equity, access to higher education, and student success. Barbara J. Guzzetti , Ph. She received her Ph. Prior to earning her doctorate, Dr.
Mina C. Johnson , Ph. Johnson-Glenberg holds a Ph. Her current research focuses on designing games for behavioral and cognitive change. She has also designed several NLP algorithms for use in her games. This new company will serve as the portal for her commercialized games. Jean Larson , Ph. Jean Larson has a Ph.
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